List of Governors of Maryland

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Number of Governors of Maryland by party affiliation[1]
Party Governors
Democratic 27
Federalist 9
Democratic-Republican 11
Republican 6
No Party 6
Whig 3
National Republican 2
American 1
Unionist 1

The following is a list of the Governors of Maryland from independence to the present day. The Governor of Maryland heads the executive branch of the government of the U.S. state of Maryland and is commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.[2] He or she is the highest-ranking official in the state, and the constitutional powers of Maryland's Governors make them among the most powerful in the United States.[3]

Since the American Revolution, Maryland has had a number of state constitutions that have specified different terms of office and methods of selection of its Governors. Under the constitution of 1776, the Governors were appointed by the legislature to one year terms. An 1838 constitutional amendment allowed the direct election of Governors to three-year terms, although the Governors came from rotating election districts. The terms were lengthened to four years in the 1851 Constitution and the election districts were abolished in the 1864 version.[2]

List of Governors[edit]

Parties

      Democratic       Federalist       Democratic-Republican       No party       Whig       National Republican       Republican       American       Unionist

# Governor Picture Party Took office Left office Notes
1 Thomas Johnson Johnson None March 21, 1777 November 12, 1779
2 Thomas Sim Lee Federalist November 12, 1779 November 22, 1782
3 William Paca Paca None November 22, 1782 November 26, 1785
4 William Smallwood Smallwood None November 26, 1785 November 24, 1788
5 John Eager Howard Howard Federalist November 24, 1788 November 14, 1791
6 George Plater Plater None November 14, 1791 February 10, 1792 [4]
James Brice (acting) Federalist February 13, 1792 April 5, 1792 [5]
2 Thomas Sim Lee Federalist April 5, 1792 November 14, 1794
7 John Hoskins Stone Stone Federalist November 14, 1794 November 17, 1797
8 John Henry Democratic-Republican November 17, 1797 November 14, 1798
9 Benjamin Ogle BOgle Federalist November 14, 1798 November 10, 1801
10 John Francis Mercer Democratic-Republican November 10, 1801 November 13, 1803
11 Robert Bowie Bowie Democratic-Republican November 15, 1803 November 10, 1806
12 Robert Wright Wright Democratic-Republican November 12, 1806 June 9, 1809 [6]
13 Edward Lloyd Lloyd Democratic-Republican June 9, 1809 November 16, 1811 [7]
11 Robert Bowie Bowie Democratic-Republican November 16, 1811 November 25, 1812
14 Levin Winder Winder Federalist November 25, 1812 January 2, 1816
15 Charles Carnan Ridgely Ridgely Federalist January 2, 1816 January 8, 1819
16 Charles Goldsborough Goldsborough Federalist January 8, 1819 December 20, 1819
17 Samuel Sprigg Sprigg Democratic-Republican December 20, 1819 December 16, 1822
18 Samuel Stevens, Jr. Democratic-Republican December 16, 1822 January 9, 1826
19 Joseph Kent Kent Democratic-Republican January 9, 1826 January 15, 1829
20 Daniel Martin National Republican January 15, 1829 January 15, 1830
21 Thomas King Carroll Democratic January 15, 1830 January 13, 1831
20 Daniel Martin National Republican January 13, 1831 July 11, 1831 [4]
22 George Howard National Republican July 11, 1831 January 17, 1833 [8]
23 James Thomas Thomas Whig January 17, 1833 January 14, 1836
24 Thomas W. Veazey Veazey Whig January 14, 1836 January 7, 1839
25 William Grason Democratic January 7, 1839 January 3, 1842
26 Francis Thomas Thomas Democratic January 3, 1842 January 6, 1845
27 Thomas Pratt Pratt Whig January 6, 1845 January 3, 1848
28 Philip F. Thomas Thomas Democratic January 3, 1848 January 6, 1851
29 Enoch Louis Lowe Lowe Democratic January 6, 1851 January 11, 1854
30 Thomas W. Ligon Ligon Democratic January 11, 1854 January 13, 1858
31 Thomas H. Hicks Hicks American; later Republican January 13, 1858 January 8, 1862
32 Augustus Bradford Bradford Unionist January 8, 1862 January 10, 1866
33 Thomas Swann Swann Democratic January 10, 1866 January 13, 1869 [9]
34 Oden Bowie Bowie Democratic January 13, 1869 January 10, 1872
35 William Pinkney Whyte Whyte Democratic January 10, 1872 March 4, 1874 [10]
36 James B. Groome Groome Democratic March 4, 1874 January 12, 1876 [11]
37 John Lee Carroll Democratic January 12, 1876 January 14, 1880
38 William T. Hamilton Hamilton Democratic January 14, 1880 January 9, 1884
39 Robert Milligan McLane McClane Democratic January 9, 1884 March 27, 1885 [12]
40 Henry Lloyd Democratic March 27, 1885 January 11, 1888 [13]
41 Elihu Emory Jackson Jackson Democratic January 11, 1888 January 13, 1892
42 Frank Brown Brown Democratic January 13, 1892 January 8, 1896
43 Lloyd Lowndes, Jr. Lowndes Republican January 8, 1896 January 10, 1900
44 John Walter Smith Smith Democratic January 10, 1900 January 13, 1904
45 Edwin Warfield Warfield Democratic January 13, 1904 January 8, 1908
46 Austin Lane Crothers Crothers Democratic January 8, 1908 January 10, 1912
47 Phillips Lee Goldsborough Goldsborough Republican January 10, 1912 January 12, 1916
48 Emerson C. Harrington Harrington Democratic January 12, 1916 January 14, 1920
49 Albert C. Ritchie Ritchie Democratic January 14, 1920 January 9, 1935
50 Harry W. Nice Nice Republican January 9, 1935 January 11, 1939
51 Herbert R. O'Conor O'Conor Democratic January 11, 1939 January 3, 1947 [10]
52 William Preston Lane, Jr. Lane Democratic January 3, 1947 January 10, 1951 [14]
53 Theodore R. McKeldin McKeldrin Republican January 10, 1951 January 14, 1959
54 J. Millard Tawes Tawes Democratic January 14, 1959 January 25, 1967
55 Spiro Agnew Agnew Republican January 25, 1967 January 7, 1969 [15]
56 Marvin Mandel Mandel Democratic January 7, 1969 January 17, 1979 [16]
Blair Lee III (acting) Lee III Democratic June 4, 1977 January 15, 1979 [17]
57 Harry R. Hughes Hughes Democratic January 17, 1979 January 20, 1987
58 William Donald Schaefer Schaefer Democratic January 20, 1987 January 18, 1995
59 Parris N. Glendening Glendening Democratic January 18, 1995 January 15, 2003
60 Robert L. Ehrlich, Jr. Ehrlich Republican January 15, 2003 January 17, 2007
61 Martin J. O'Malley O'Malley Democratic January 17, 2007 (Incumbent) [18]

Other high offices held[edit]

This is a table of congressional, confederate and other federal offices held by governors. All representatives and senators mentioned represented Maryland except where noted.

* Denotes those offices which the governor resigned to take.
Governor Gubernatorial term U.S. Congress Other offices held
House Senate
Thomas Johnson 1777–1779 Delegate to the First Continental Congress, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
Thomas Sim Lee 1779–1782 Delegate to the Congress of the Confederation (1781-1789), "United States in Congress Assembled"
William Paca 1782–1785 Delegate to the First Continental Congress, (1774)
John E. Howard 1788–1791 S President pro tempore of the U.S. Senate
George Plater 1791–1792 Delegate to the Second Continental Congress, (1775-1781)
John Henry 1797–1798 S Delegate to the Second Continental Congress,(1775-1781); Delegate to the Congress of the Confederation, (1781-1789)
John Francis Mercer 1801–1803 H
Robert Wright 1806–1809 H S
Edward Lloyd 1809–1811 H S
Charles Goldsborough 1819 H
Joseph Kent 1826–1829 H S
Francis Thomas 1842–1845 H
Thomas Pratt 1845–1848 S
Philip Thomas 1848–1851 H S U.S. Secretary of the Treasury
Thomas W. Ligon 1854–1858 H
Thomas H. Hicks 1858–1862 S
Thomas Swann 1866–1869 H
William Pinkney Whyte 1872–1874 S*
James B. Groome 1874–1876 S
William T. Hamilton 1880–1884 H S
Robert Milligan McLane 1884–1885 H Ambassador to the Great Qing Empire,[Manchu dynasty], (Chinese Empire), U.S. Ambassador to Mexico, U.S. Ambassador to France*
Lloyd Lowndes, Jr. 1896–1900 H
John Walter Smith 1900–1904 H S
Phillips Lee Goldsborough 1912–1916 S
Herbert R. O'Conor 1939–1947 S*
Spiro T. Agnew 1967–1969 3rd Baltimore County Executive, (1962-1966); 39th Vice President of the United States, (1969-1973)*
Robert L. Ehrlich, Jr. 2003–2007 H Representative, Maryland's 2nd congressional district

Living former governors[edit]

As of August 2014, four former governors were alive, the oldest being Marvin Mandel (1969–1979, born 1920). The most recent, and also the most recently serving governor to die was William Donald Schaefer (1987–1995), on April 18, 2011.

Governor Gubernatorial term Date of birth
Marvin Mandel 1969–1979 (1920-04-19) April 19, 1920 (age 94)
Harry R. Hughes 1979–1987 (1926-11-13) November 13, 1926 (age 87)
Parris N. Glendening 1995–2003 (1942-06-11) June 11, 1942 (age 72)
Robert L. Ehrlich, Jr. 2003–2007 (1957-11-25) November 25, 1957 (age 56)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Table does not include governors from the colonial period, when there were no organized parties in Maryland, and governors were generally appointed rather than elected. It also does not include acting governors.
  2. ^ a b "Maryland Governor - Origin & Functions". Maryland Manual Online. Retrieved 2007-06-24. 
  3. ^ Prah, Pamela (March 9, 2007). "Massachusetts gov rated most powerful". Stateline.Org. Retrieved 2007-06-25. 
  4. ^ a b Died in office.
  5. ^ As senior member of the Governor's Council, was appointed by state legislature to fill term until replacement elected.
  6. ^ Resigned to pursue a judgeship, but failed to obtain the appointment.
  7. ^ Appointed by legislature to fill unexpired term; was later elected in his own right.
  8. ^ As president of the executive council, filled unexpired term; was later elected in his own right.
  9. ^ Elected to the United States Senate but declined his seat, preferring to remain governor.
  10. ^ a b Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.
  11. ^ Appointed by legislature to fill unexpired term.
  12. ^ Resigned to take post as Minister to France.
  13. ^ Appointed by the legislature to fill unexpired term; was later elected in his own right.
  14. ^ Took office five days early when the General Assembly chose him to complete the last days of his predecessor's term. White, Jr., Frank F. (22 June 2003). "William Preston Lane, Jr.". Archives of Maryland (Biographical Series). Maryland State Archives. Retrieved 20 December 2009. 
  15. ^ Resigned to take elected office as Vice President of the United States.
  16. ^ Chosen by the General Assembly to fill unexpired term; was later elected in his own right.
  17. ^ Blair Lee III acted as governor in place of Marvin Mandel after Mandel bestowed his powers and duties on Lee following both a stroke, and a conviction on charges of corruption. Mandel rescinded his decision shortly before the expiration of his second term. Mandel served 19 months in prison before the sentence was commuted by President Ronald Reagan; the conviction was later overturned.
  18. ^ Governor O'Malley's term expires on January 21, 2015; he is term limited.